BREED'S COLLECTION OF
TOBACCO HISTORY SITES



MISSION: This page is designed to provide annotated links to internet resources providing information on tobacco history - especially the earliest centuries, those pre-contact years that have been ignored by previous tobacco historians. Tobacco was used by the peoples of the Americas for millennia before Columbus, but most chronologies of tobacco history begin on 12 October 1492. In other words, thousands of years of history of dozens of nations and cultures covering two continents has been reduced to a few, often inaccurate, sentences. This web page is now dedicated to uncovering and connecting the reader to this 'lost history' - as well as to the usual post-contact tobacco history.

last update: 2 July 2002


Index

OVERVIEWS -------- NATIVE PEOPLES - PRE COLUMBUS
NATIVES, EXPLORERS AND COLONISTS-------- MORE HISTORIES ON TOBACCO
TOBACCO CONTROL HISTORIES -------- SOME ARTICLES OF INTEREST
TOBACCO PLACES TO VISIT-------- TOBACCO NEWS COLLECTIONS
OLD TOBACCO ADS -------- TOBACCO IN LITERATURE
TOBACCO IN FILM AND VIDEO:-------- TOBACCO IMAGES, PICTURES, ETC...
THINGS CLOSELY RELATED TO TOBACCO -------- COLLECTIONS OF TOBACCO
TOBACCO INDUSTRY MATERIAL -------- HISTORY TO FIND


OVERVIEWS

Visit Smoking from all Sides for information on tobacco history and lots of links.

See Tobacco BBS's Tobacco History Links section, as well as the Tobacco Timeline for information and links.

A site for occasional updates on tobacco related websites, including some history sites.

Try some very obvious sources such as the Encyclopedia Britannica, the Columbia Encyclopedia and maybe Dictionary.Com. For any serious search try more than one search engine, such as google and Lycos and Open Directory aka dmoz and the specifics of dmoz's history and finally Yahoo! of course.


NATIVE PEOPLES - PRE COLUMBUS

Pre Columbian or pre-contact tobacco use by the indigenous peoples of the Americas is usually ignored within the field of tobacco history. The solution to this "oversight" seems to be to look to both (a) anthropological sources and (b) an examination of tobacco use nation by nation and culture by culture. Two books that begin to cover the topic are: J.C. Winter, editor of 'Tobacco Use by Native North Americans', 2000; and J. Wilbert, author of 'Tobacco and Shamanism in South American,' 1987.

I have discovered that the internet does not replace a good library for those of you hunting for the details of a specific nation or culture; the best I can provide is a framework and starting points. For example, if one were to focus on a tribe from the California region one would look to such sites as: Bibliographies of Northern and Central California Indians and Resources for California Teachers and Students on California's Indigenous People, or see Federally Recognized California Tribes for information and links, or The California Native American Page. You will not find an online copy of Kroeber's 1941 article on California Indians titled "Salt, Dogs and Tobacco." Online you can read 'Early Uses of Indian Tobacco in California' as well as Early Uses of California Plants by E.K. Balls.

The number of centuries, with two distinct time periods (pre and post contact), the vast and varied geographic area and the number of cultures involved make generalizations very difficult if not wrong. Some authors have written that tobacco was only used by shamans or for ceremony, others claim that tobacco was used casually. Some write that all nations used tobacco, some claim several tribes did not, some believe that smoking material may not have been tobacco. Some write that tobacco use began 2000 years ago, others mention that it began 8000 years ago, others claim an even longer history. Some authors claim that tobacco use was a vital core element to a nation but then ignore it in the text of their book. In other words, avoid broad generalizations, the topic is too varied.

It may not be possible to create a time line of the pre-contact centuries. This story begins with the plant. It is believed that the plant began in the mountains of Peruvian Andes and spread from there. There are numerous species, see Mapacho by A. L. Jussieu. See pictures of Nicotiana attenuata. In general it is believed the first human use was by chewing the leaf, then drinking water that contained tobacco leaf (probably boiled and strained), then snuff and then smoking. There were well used trade routes in the Americas that were certainly used to spread the seed and uses of tobacco throughout the continents.

To add to your online reading list try the notes from The Encyclopedia of Psychoactive Substances (1998) and Tobacco, culture, and health among American Indians: a historical review. The site, Central America's Traditional Plant Medicine by Kat Morgenstern includes the role of tobacco and see Petun and the Petuns. Useful historical material is available from the first chapter of Tobacco: The Story of How it Seduced the World' by Iain Gately (2001). See Origins of Nicotine Use and the Global Diffusion of Tobacco" by Alexander von Gernet, PhD. as well as 'Cosmological Implications of Pan-Indian Sacred Pipe Ritual' by Jordan Paper.

To gain more detailed information, that may lead you to a library, search from Anthropological Index Online or from the American Anthropological Association's Native American and Alaskan Classroom Resources page. Try the Smithsonian Institute's Selected References on Native American Ritual and Religion or Native Americans - General Topics or their links page of Resources on the Net. And North American Indian Historical Sites for a start. Try Early Ethnogography and Images of Native Americans from UC Berkeley.

For information on a particular nation, tribe or culture, go to various sites one by one. Try indexes such as: Official and Unofficial Tribal Sites. Search from has Native Web for numerous resources. American West has information such as Native American Nations information, and maybe try North American Indian Historical Sites as a beginning.

Perhaps one research method is to write lots of letters and attend lots of meeting searching for people that have collected relevant information; try to find others from 'Powwows, Festivals, and Other Events' or from Powwows.com. There is at least one discussion site that could be a source of aid and information, see Native Net Dialogue Mailing Lists and related information. Perhaps a discussion within a tobacco control web site, such as a new forum from Smokescreen's public and private lists might be a handy thing to consider. For guidance and support contact people that have been involved in this work, my first choice is the California Rural Indian Health Board, Inc., they oversee such as the American Indian Tobacco Education Network. Also contact the National Tribal Tobacco Prevention Network.

Words are an important part of culture and history. The words used to describe tobacco related terms and actions should not be ignored. A great example, from Yanomano - the word for 'poverty' is 'being without tobacco' (N. Chagnon, page 117). Such a study would be undertaken language by language. From the web maybe start with Native American Languages on the net or try Index of Native American Language Resources on the Internet. Also see Teaching Indigenous Languages and their links page to begin to learn more. Try NativeWeb for more.

Stories tell of the past and tobacco is in numerous tales, such as the Apache's Coyote Steals Sun's Tobacco. More searches could start from Native American Lore Index or Native American Folklore or "Legends and Myths" collected by Karen M. Strom. The Smithsonian Institute's Bibliography on American Indian Traditional Stories and Mythology or Creation, Origin, Migration stories could be of use. Read of Aztec Manuscripts and Maya Codices collected by "GB."

Various people have collected Narratives of Native Americans. Try Oral History Web Links for more.

Pre Columbian artifacts should be studied as a clue to the past, but few are more than 2000 years old (this is why some think tobacco use is only 2000 years old), such as Xochipili, Prince of Flowers. See the Aztec image. For more general collections see such as Native American Art History or The Native Arts of The Americas and Oceania.

Pipes are an artifact of interest. See the web bibliography, Historic and Pre-Historic Native Smoking Pipe Bibliography compiled by Michael A. Pfeiffer. Visit the Pipestone National Monument as this location is the source of much of the stone used for many pipes by many nations. The organization Keepers of the Sacred Tradition Pipemakers are organized around the traditional catlinite stone used for centuries to make pipes. One name for the pipe used was Calumet and from a pipe club in England see their page on The Calumet pipe and see a variety of images here.

Before use tobacco must be cured. It seems the indigenous peoples discovered the variety of methods. The main one seems to have been to place the leaf over the fire or placed in the sweat house..The Choctaw and Chickasaw learned how to cure with a hollowed log and lever press, now only used for perique tobacco.

All manners of tobacco injestion were developed by the indigenous peoples, some forms of use have not been adapted. Tobacco was placed on the skin, eyes, gums, or the tongue. It was drunk as liquid or licked (some define this as sucking). Tobacco blowing was a part of numerous ceremonies. Tobacco was also used as an enema or suppository There is no known intravenous use, past or present. There were pipes but I have never read of water pipes. Separate from this tobacco was used in ceremony that did not involve ingestion. A variety of use methods are retold in Tobacco: The Story of How Tobacco Seduced the World, including as an insecticide. And in Wilbert's 'Tobacco and Shamanism in South America." Information on use is found in Mapacho, or Sacred Tobacco. The use of tobacco for smugging is new to me, but here it is. Maybe see the video, or read the transcripts of, We Pray With Tobacco" for more information on the role of tobacco before Columbus.

A review of indigenous histories will lead you to the uses of tobacco. Tobacco was a "bond of communion between the natural and the supernatural worlds" (Wilbert, 1979, page 35). The smoke of the pipe acted as a messenger to communicate to the gods and sprits. Shamans used huge quantities of tobacco for trance states and ritualized death experiences. In some cultures the shaman sucked out the magical darts causing illness and trapped them with tobacco. Tobacco leaf was directly applied to an ill person, could be a disinfectant and could kill fly larva and worms under the skin. Tobacco smoke was blown onto certain persons at certain times and used to fumigate seeds. Tobacco could ease pain of toothaches and one reference suggests that the prisoners executed in mass by the Mayans were given large doses of tobacco to ease the pain. It is possible that the continual needs of the shaman encouraged tobacco farming or trade with others in tobacco. At times the pipe, or just the stem, was of power without tobacco. The use of tobacco and the pipe for greetings and a gift.Tobacco was used as an insecticide.

Often, especially in North America, tobacco was mixed with other ingredients, Kinnikinnick was one term for this mixture. Added were such as sumac, laurel, squaw bush, various herbs and oils, lime, powered coca, pepper, or the inner bark of such as the dogwood, cherry, red willow, poplar, birch or arrowwood tree. (Note: I have not found details of early colonial flavorings, but by the late 1800s formulas might contain such as: glucose, glycerine, licorice, rum, tonka beans and sugar from N.M. Tilley, 1948, page 674. This becomes important when we learn of 'trade tobacco').

When conducting your own search you may find the topic of pre-contact tobacco use may be found within the category of mind-altering plants used for religious purposes, as in Psychotropic Plants in the Americas by Jan-Aake Alvarsson & Aake Hultkrantz.

Another source of information might be within the field of biology, such as the bibliography: Ethnobotany and Paleoethnobotany complied by Michael A. Pfeiffer. Use the search engine of the American Indian Ethnobotany Database: Foods, Drugs, Dyes, and Fibers of Native North American Peoples, to find tobacco related items.

While in the library find: Smoking And Health in the Americas, A 1992 Report to the Surgeon General, in collaboration with the Pan American Health Organization, CDC, DHHS Pub No (CDC) 92-8419; and Portals Of Power: Shamanism In South America, Edited by E. Jean Matteson Langdon and Gerhard Baer, University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque; as well as, Tobacco And Shamanism In South America, Edited by Richard Evans, Schultes and Robert F. Raffauf, Yale University Press, New Haven and London.

Today there are indigenous cultures that retain many pre-Columbian ways. It is possible to consider these cultures as offering some idea of pre-contact life, but one must be careful with this source of data since unknown changes have occurred. Biopark offers an overview of numerous tribes in the Peruvian Amazon from their page titled Mapacho. See information on specific peoples, such as the Yanomamo, and the article 'Tobacco Use: A Cross Cultural Comparison' by Dan McDonley concerning the Tucano and Yanomamo tribes. The Bibliography of Indigenous Groups may lead you farther.

Currently there are organizations that suggest and remind people that tobacco can have a spiritual role in their lives today, such as: Traditional Native American Tobacco Seed Bank and Education Program It seems that to properly keep alive the tradition of tobacco use it will be necessary to reestablish the farming of tobacco with the proper seed for each nation. "It is now common for commercial tobacco to be used at Aboriginal sacred ceremonies without a second thought to its lack of it spiritual significance." Some have identified this as a problem.

History may have forgotten the role of the indigenous peoples of America, but the tobacco companies were able to find a way to remember, see the American Indian Chiefs Tobacco Silks for sale.


NATIVES, EXPLORERS AND COLONISTS

There is data on the post contact years, but it is filtered through the eyes, words and background of people who did not really understand what they were seeing. A wonderful and wise quote of ethnologist John P. Harrington ('Tobacco Among the Karuk Indians of California', 1932) discusses the differences between the traditional indigenous and the post Columbian relationship to tobacco --"It is a curious fact that while the Whites took the material tobacco from the Indians they took with it no fragment of the world that accompanied it, nor were they at first aware that there was such a world. After all of the generations that have elapsed since its introduction among the Whites, it has woven itself scarcely at all into their psychology and mythology. Lady Nicotine is enshrined among the Whites only as a drug, as a taste, as a habit, along with the seeking after mild and tasty forms, while the Native peoples make tobacco a heritage from the gods, a strange path which juts from there into this world and leads to the very ends of magic (page 13)."

See extracts from the journal of Christopher Columbus and letters from Columbus of about 1493 and then a letter of 1494.

Michael Wolfe, M.A.I.S. located one of the earliest European published work on tobacco, (a) the Aztec Herbal of 1552, to mention tobacco or pizietl as a medicine. In addition, (b) Bernardino de Sahagun: Florentine Codex, General history of the things of New Spain in Thirteen Parts, Original title: Historia general de las cosas de Nueva Espana; text begun shortly after the conquest and attained its final form in the 1580's. It has a description of a tobacco merchant in Volume 10 and there is an illustration. Volume 11 has a blurb about the plant, as well as an illustration showing cultivation, as well as (c) Francisco Hernandez: Historia de las Plantas de Neuva Espana; an annotated reprint of the 1615 edition with illustrations from the 1651 edition, 3 volumes.

A translation of the section 'Of the Tabaco and of His Greate Vertues' by Nicholas Monardes' Joyfull Newes our of the Newe Founde Worlde first published in 1577. Tobacco as medicine.

In Hariot's "A Briefe and True Report of the New Found Land of Virginia," (1588) is a mention of tobacco (uppcwoc) and of the author's own "experiments" with it. "We ourselues during the time we were there vsed to suck it after their maner, as also since our returne, & haue found manie rare and wonderful experiments of the vertues thereof; of which the relation woulde require a volume by it selfe: the vse of it by so manie of late, men & women of great calling as else, and some learned Phisitions also, is sufficient witnes."

The full, modernized, text of King James 1 book, (about 1604) Counterblast to Tobacco (all of it?), and the A Counter Blaste to Tobacco cover.

On a ship with Henry Hudson in 1609 was Robert Juet who wrote a journal of that trip.

A treatise divided into three parts, touching the inconveniences, that the Importation of Tobacco out of Spain, hath brought into this land by Edward Bennett, circa 1620. See a list of English Tobacco Pamphlets - "The whole output of literature on tobacco is eminently characteristic of the age in its elaborate titles, far-fetched conceits and bitter invective. The spirit of criticism is so strong that even the partisans of the weed satirise the habits of the smoker."

A portion of Schoolcraft on the Sacred Origin of Tobacco, (1851-57).

An essay on The European Tobacco Trade from the 15th to the 17th Centuries, by Mike Davey. Read "Economic Aspects of Tobacco during the Colonial Period 1612-1776", author unknown.

From this long list maintained by Rick Gardiner can be found tobacco relevant documents: Primary Source Documents Pertaining to Early American History including those of many explorers, charters and laws of the colonies, letters of colonists, etc.. As one tiny example, try Virginia Assembly laws regulating the price of tobacco 1639-1640.

The colony of Jamestown survived in part because it had something England wanted - tobacco, from the Association for the Preservation of Virginia Antiquities. TBBS has some detail on Jamestown - the use of the 'Spanish tobacco' gave the English colonists something to keep them alive.

At least three people from Jamestown are of historical interest. John Smith's, Advertisements for the Inexperienced Planters of New England, or Anywhere or The Pathway To Experience to Erect a Plantation. And John Rolfe is important to the tobacco history; this site explains better than others how the desirable tobacco of the Spanish held Caribbeans made its way to the English colony of Jamestown. The role of Pocahontas in the growth of tobacco in the colonies - she was the first "poster girl" of tobacco but most important her marriage "assured that the native people would not attack Jamestown or upset the new cash crop."

See the receipt of 131 rolls of pigtail tobacco purchased by Meriwether Lewis. Read 'The Story of The Exploring Expedition of Lewis and Clark in 1804-5-6' written by Noah Brooks repeats the importance of tobacco as a trade item. For a full discussion of the Lewis and Clark journals see the Library of Congress list of documentation compiled by Jay Rasmsssen.

The CDC offers, in PDF, Factors that Influence Tobacco Use Among Four Racial/Ethnic Minority Groups, Chapter 4 which gives some history and references that may be of use.

From Pletten, a wonderful long list of tobacco addiction data 1527 TO 1998 (with his comments).

Tobacco was a form of currency, especially on the frontier. This was sometimes known as tobacco notes or Money in North American History refers to "Country Pay" or "Country Money" including tobacco. I have read the term "vegetable wampum" to describe the role of tobacco as an item of currency.

At various times the indigenous peoples seem to have preferred to smoke European made tobaccos which created a subtle yet powerful impacted their life and culture. Wilbert wrote, "the plant had a major impact on tribal value systems until, under the influence of the advancing frontier, the ideological tenets of tobacco beliefs began to shift increasingly from the religious to the profane" (page xvi). Traders offered tobacco as one item for trade for furs, at one point in one location a beaver pelt would buy a pound of tobacco. A wonderful recreation of the era makes clear the role of trade tobacco A Year in the Life of a Canoe Brigade, by J. Gottfred..


MORE HISTORIES ON TOBACCO

A valuable book is "Price Policies in the Cigarette Industry: A Study of Concerted Action and its Social Control 1911-50" by William H. Nicholls, 1951, The Vanderbilt University Press, 423 pages. Tobacco industry history based upon court records with much detail, industry quotes, tables and charts. Part 1 is introduction with focus on dissolution of the Tobacco Trust in 1911. Part 2 is on the monopoly elements in the cigarette market. Part 3 is on the monopoly elements in the tobacco leaf markets. The book concludes with Part 4 on the social control of oligopolies.

The invention of the mentholated cigarette by Lloyd F. "Spud" Hughes was a bit of a milestone. Spud created Spud cigarettes (the first menthol cigarette) then Julep (we believe).

Leroy Pletten has put onto the net numerous old works of interest. These old documents are a useful resource for the historian but less so to the contemporary tobacco control activist.

Please see The History and Impact of the Tobacco Plant.

Several wonderful pages of the Dry Drunk: The Culture of Tobacco in 17th- and 18th-century Europe. From the New York Public Library, Center for the Humanities, The Miriam & Ira D. Wallach Division of Art, Prints and Photographs.

Several pages of tobacco history from the Waguespack Seminars and Workshops.

From Boston University MedicalCenter History of Tobacco

Maybe someone can find good stuff at The USDA History Collection search engine.

From North Carolina State Univ, Tobacco in Business and Industry and farming and more, just look around.

Read CNN's history of tobacco. There are several good pages.

The Walter Reed Army Medical Center, offers Brief History of Tobacco Use and Abuse as a part patient education.

Start here to read the first of several pages from Bright Leaves Tobacco Materials in the Collection of NCSU Libraries.

A nice timeline from the Coalition for a Tobacco Free Pennsylvania.

Read Florida's Cultural Legacy: Tobacco, Steam & Stone by L. Glenn Westfall.

From the Center for the Study of the American South, Tobacco Farming.

The Chronology on the History of Slavery and Racism refers to tobacco.

An interesting five-minute history of tobacco for grades 3 to 12.

From Ephidrina comes their version of Tobacco in History.

Read the full story of North Carolina Agriculture History, by J. Paul Lilly, Department of Soil Science, North Carolina State University.

FORCES has A History of Tobacco by James Leavey.

Canada FORCES offers excerpts from "Smoking and health promotion in Nazi Germany", Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health(1994;48:220-223).

Pour les Amateurs de Pipes et de Tabac, includes history.

A history from Fuji, lovers of the leaf, titled, "Tobacco...Working for America," with editorial materials and economic benefits.

Torn Between Tradition and a Changing World, Amish Farmers in Pennsylvania Cling to the Old Ways of Raising Tobacco. "For generations, tobacco has been the lifeblood-or 'mortgage lifter.'"

A history from Smoke and Be Cool.

?? There are two pages of history from The American Smoker, "The history of tobacco and the American Government."


TOBACCO CONTROL HISTORIES

The tobacco control historian should take a peek at the Tobacco Control Archives Collections at UCSF.

From the CDC, selected Actions of the U.S. Government Regarding the Regulation of Tobacco Sales, Marketing, and Use, from 1906 to 1996.

The History of Tobacco Regulation, from the National Commission on Marihuana and Drug Abuse.

The Schaffer Library of Drug Policy offers links to Historical Research on Drug Policy includes tobacco, look around.

Search the opinions of the Supreme Court decisions since 1893; some involve tobacco companies and related issues. See the 1911 Supreme Court opinion.

FOREST presents Smoking and its Enemies: A Short History of 500 Years of the Use and Prohibition of Tobacco., by Sean Gabb.

See the poster of Narcoti Cure circa 1895.


SOME ARTICLES OF INTEREST

An Educational Resource/Curriculum for Low Literacy Readers From First to Last Ash: The History, Economics & Hazards of Tobacco, order your copy here.

A memory of his grandparents farming, Everything I Needed To Know I Learned in the Terbacky Garden in on their southwestern Ohio farm.

A quote from Mark Twain on the joy of smoking, 1865.

How Three Cigars Changed History begins here. By Gregory D. Delev in Smoke magazine.

The Penny Magazine - Sep. 5, 1835, No. 220, Illustrations of Tobacco-Smoking is all text.

Story of a reporter who tried to make public the 1938 scientific research that showed that tobacco killed the user. "Fifty Years Ahead of His Time More than 50 articles from Seldes's newsletter."

FORCES, Canada wants us all to remember this: "Here are excerpts from "Smoking and health promotion in Nazi Germany", published in the Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health (1994; 48:220-223), authored by George Davey Smith".


TOBACCO PLACES TO VISIT

Gene Borio suggests an interesting idea; the Tobacco Tour. With information about tobacco related museums, farms, auction houses, manufacturing plants, etc.. How about....

The American Tobacco Trail "is a 30 mile rails-to-trails project located in the Triangle Region of North Carolina."

Information with pictures "Raising Burley Tobacco is a labor-intensive occupation that begins early in the year at Head of Happy Hollow Farm."

The Wisconsin Historical Society is set within a reproduction 18th century Eastern Shore Virginia tobacco barn, and much more.

Read of or visit the Wilson, NC tobacco market tours available. If you want to see them on your own the addresses of all 11 warehouses is here.

The North Carolina Department of Cultural Resources, Division of Archives and History, State Historic Preservation Office offers information on a state landmark - "North Carolina without tobacco barns would be like Holland without windmills." And they offer a listing of Tobacco Museums in North Carolina As well as a day on the Carter farm, with lots of pictures.

The Tobacco Farm Life Museum of Kenly, North Carolina sounds like a good place to visit.

An interesting place, The National Cigar Museum. There are special exhibits, such as Racism Sells Cigars 1865-1935. Read a few interesting book reviews here. Keep looking around.

China is building a tobacco museum to be located in the city of Yuxi in Kunming province (SW area). It is designed to cover both the history of the tobacco industry in China and the dangers of smoking.

The Duke Homestead and Tobacco Museum online tour is a must see.

Perique tobacco is rare, this type of tobacco may vanish and become history. Visit the St. James Parish, Culture and Heritage Center for their collection on perique; on site they have the press used for curing (no fires or heat used!). For more pictures of the farming and pressing at the only remaining perique farm. And read Chapter 16 of the great 1920 book Tobacco Leaf by J. B. KIllebrew, A. M., Ph. D.

?? Visit a working recreated 1660s tobacco plantation (Godiah Spray tobacco plantation) in Maryland.


TOBACCO NEWS COLLECTIONS

From the Tobacco BBS collection of The News Archive for tobacco related news stories.

For a collection of USA news articles, see Terry Polevoy's Hot Stuff on the Tube and in Print.

Search news stories from the Richmond Times-Dispatch Tobacco - Up in Smoke, a collection of their tobacco articles.

Story of a reporter who tried to make public the 1938 scientific research that showed that tobacco killed the user.


OLD TOBACCO ADS

See many ads from "The World's Largest Archive of Classic Print Ads" in AdFlip.

Find a bunch of tobacco commercials from RetroFilm Media International, including Classic Television Commercials

These Library of American Broadcasting vintage radio commercials include a few for tobacco products.

The Television News Archive of Vanderbilt University has a collection of TV news shows starting in 1968, and that includes material on tobacco issues.

The Tobacco Control Resource Center has copies of old tobacco ads in their multimedia resource center.

"This is an informational site devoted to cartophily, the hobby of collecting cigarette and other trade cards," now and forever known as the Cartophily Page. There is history section and images.

Many nice historical pictures at Burnt Offerings, "there are approximately 70 pages of cigarette packs, advertising, and history that make up this web site." There is much history here. Pictures of cigarette trade cards. Pictures of cigarette insert cards. Which were replaced by silks, which "were meant to be stitched together to form colorful pillow covers, quilts or other decorative household items." During the Depression there was a new style of cigarette the "ten cent'er." During WWII pipe tobacco companies began to make cigarettes. So much to learn!

Collection of images of Tobacco Silks: 1880 - 1910. "These silks were initially made to attract the new market of female smokers who would collect these colorful images and sew them together creating pillows or quilt covers."

Read about Willie the KOOL penguin. Did you know there was a Kool Willie comic book for kids? Six issues were published by "Standard Comics" between April 1951 and April 1952, copyright by the Brown and Williamson Tobacco Company.

A wonderful collection of tobacco ads from the 1940's and 1950's, the age of innocence.

Collection of tobacco images, not so old.

An Old Dr. Grabow Tobacco Pipe promotional pamphlet, "The Case of the New Smoker."

The unofficial home of Capri Superslims! And a collection of ads.

Lots of pictures of tobacco collectibles.

How the American Tobacco Industry Employs PR Scum To Continue Its Murderous Assault On Human Lives is a review of the use of PR during the 1900s. By John Stauber and Sheldon Rampton of PR Watch: Public Interest Reporting on the PR/Public Affairs Industry.

?? Read this to learn more of one famous advertising campaign, Joe Camel and the American Way, offers "On-Line information about tobacco advertising." Good collection of pictures.


TOBACCO IN LITERATURE

Project Gutenberg Release #2384 (November 2000) is The Deliverance: A Romance of the Virginia Tobacco Fields by Ellen Anderson Gholson Glasgow.

Bibliography of books, etc. on tobacco from 1809 to today. Compiler, L. Grivetti, Department of Nutrition, University of California, Davis, CA.

The TBBS collection of books on tobacco. And the TBBS' Tobacco Books (A-R) and Tobacco Books (S-Z) from Amazon.com.

?? Please visit Tobacco Anthology on the Internet. "This is an e-text collection of the tobacco poetry I collected for a monograph (unpublished) on the influence of tobacco on the development of English lyric poetry." This includes a bibliography and copy of hundreds of poems on cigarettes on cigars etc.


TOBACCO IN FILM AND VIDEO

Tobacco in both health education and entertainment movies.

This is defined as "Smoking Glamor". This provides links to tobacco in movies, celebrities, fetishes, stories, etc.

This site, Screen It! offers as part of each review of each movie the amount of smoking.

?? Try tobacco in movies, "The Art of Smoking in Cinema." There is more than you may want to know!


TOBACCO IMAGES, PICTURES, ETC...

The Museum Of Tobacco Art & History

"The Art in Tobacco Farming: Photographs by Carol A. Turrentine." July through Nov. 2 1997 in the North Gallery of the Duke University Museum of Art.


THINGS CLOSELY RELATED TO TOBACCO

Collectors are a good source of information on tobacco history, for example, see Frequently Asked Questions on Tobacco Collectibles. "Cigar molds, wooden cigar boxes, Bull Durham, pipes with dates, felt flags, cigar silks, cigar ribbons, cigar bands, cleaning collectibles, Biggerhair, United Coupons, more."

The Cigarette Pack Collector Association with a newsletter, "Brandstand." Find other collectors from their links page.

See the article, "Eventually You'll Get Pretend Cancer: The Bizarre World of Candy Cigarettes" and see the pictures from the world of candy cigarettes.

See Louise Brooks trading cards, "cigarette or candy cards, as many were packaged in packs of cigarettes and other products, such as candy and cookies."

Here is a history of Tire Company Promotional Ashtrays. With links to other sites with the same interest.

Some history of cigarette rolling papers by Marco Sonaglia. A rolling papers timeline with manufacturers, brands etc compiled by Peter Emmens and Toni Segarra.

There are collectors of tobacco jars with nice pictures.

Read the History and the Romance of Cigar's Paper Ring. In Cigar Aficionado.

The Cigar Box Label Collection from the University of South Florida Tampa Campus Library.

The National Lighter Museum offers information on "Mechanical Pyrotechnic Apparatus."

See the American Matchcover Collecting Club for info and history.

Information on the Sacred Narghile or hookah.

Try hookah (narghile) history. From Tierra Caliente.


COLLECTIONS OF TOBACCO

The Arents Tobacco Collection in Room 324 of the New York Public Library. For information on the George Arents Collection in the New York Public Library. "A Universe of Tobacciana."


TOBACCO INDUSTRY MATERIAL

Search the collection of four million plus tobacco industry documents in Tobacco Documents Online, and see the collections already organized. For tobacco industry "secret" documents see: In Their Own Words. For real cherry picked items see Secret Tobacco Document Quotes.

The 1953 Preliminary Recommendations for Cigarette Manufacturers. This memo seems to outline the problem and offers a set of solutions that were followed by the industry.

History of, or explanation of, "development of official tobacco grade standards" by the Department of Agriculture.

The Imperial Tobacco Group PLC has six chapters of history.

The James Buchanan Duke Home Page is a long essay on the man and his actions, with an economists perspective.

History of tobacco farming in Southern Ontario, Canada. And the Ontario Flue-Cured Tobacco Growers' Marketing Board can be found.

"Up in smoke: Cigar making in Detroit," by Thomas L. Jones, special to The Detroit News.

Read about Brazilian tobacco production history from AFUBRA.

The classic A "Frank Statement to Cigarette Smokers," dated 1954.

What is a "tobacco furnisher?" Read on.

Read "Boycott initiated by Bakery, Confectionery & Tobacco Workers International Union (BC&T) against R. J. Reynolds' American-produced tobacco products in 1955." Provided by The Union Label and Service Trades Department, AFL-CIO.

From Japan Tobacco Inc., visit their Tobacco and Salt Museum.

Membership data of the Swedish Tobacco Workers' Union, 1881 to 1950. Principal investigator: Carl-G'ran, Andrae and Sven Lundkvist, Department of History, Uppsala University and Swedish Social Science Data Service.

From the International Institute of Social History in The Netherlands read of the collection of materials on International Federation of Tobacco Workers 1897-1981.

The history of James Barber tobacco merchant, with pictures. From Otley, West Yorkshire, LS21 3HN, England.

I have read that a library in College Park, Maryland has a collection of "Tobacco Workers International Union Papers."

Somewhere in the North Carolina State University Library, Raleigh, NC, is "Newsletter (Tobacco history corporation). F 264 D9 N49."

?? See the time line of Nicotine and Y-1. and the article, 'Dark Secrets of Tobacco Co. Exposed.'

??A discussion site for former, current and future tobacco workers, Primer's Forever. "Here you can reminisce about old times on the tobacco fields."


HISTORY TO FIND

I assume that somewhere in these collections of letters, accounts, diaries, biographies etc. are mentions of tobacco farming and use. I have not found the mentions, please tell me if you find any.

The Library of Congress has an American Memory collection you can search.

Read Archiving Early America use their of search page.

Use the search feature of the Making of America collection. "Making of America (MOA) represents a major collaborative endeavor to preserve and make accessible through digital technology a significant body of primary sources related to development of the U.S. infrastructure. With funding from the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation."

For lists of archival resources and sites, from Mississippi State University.

The Avalon Project of 18th century documents.

Somewhere in this list of sites should be something of use on tobacco history.

Does anyone know of a source to find the lyrics of tobacco related songs?



Larry Breed, DrPH, Community Health Education Institute. This project was made possible by funds received from the Tobacco Tax Health Protection Act of 1988 -- Proposition 99, under Grant Number # 01-15486 with the California Department of Health Services, Tobacco Control Section and American Indian Tobacco Education Network (AITEN)

By the same author, see Tobacco Activism Guide, Parts 1 & 2 as well as, Tobacco Activism Guide, Part 3. Also find Tobacco Updates.